Germanium as a semiconductor
An example of the semiconductor is germanium has few electrons available for conduction and hence is a poor conductor. When minute traces of an impurity, for example, antimony, which is capable of supplying conduction electrons, are added to the germanium, the conduction is slightly increased. With this type of impurity the negative conduction elements are free to migrate within the crystal, and hence this is called n-type germanium. If instead, a different impurity is added, for example gallium, which is able to harrow electrons from the germanium, gaps, or “holes,” appear in the structure that are electron defleciencies and therefore equivalent to positive charges. The holes may migrate through the crystal and furnish the equivalent of a moving positive charge. This is called p-type germanium. Both types of germanium are used in making transistors. Other semiconductors are also used.
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