Positive and negative charges
Benjamin Franklin (1706-1790), a diplomat, printer, and amateur scientist, played a leading role in developing theories on the nature of electricity. Franklin suggested that all bodies contained a single electrical fluid (change) which might be present in excess or which there might be a deficiency. In the first case the charge was called positive and in the second case negative. However, Charles Dufay (1698-1739) did not accept this so-called one fluid, or Unitarian, theory but rather a two-fluid or dualistic, theory. This theory proposed that a neutral body constrained equal amounts of two fluids, which were to be considered as opposites; and the electrification of a body consider in separating the two fluids. In this theory the terms negative and positive were also used arbitrarily. The electricity produced by rubbing wool on resin he called resinous electricity and claimed that it was charged negatively.
The phenomena have justified the present theory that the rubbing of objects does not create theory that the rubbing of objects does not create electricity but merely changes the electrical neutrality of the trinity of the substance in contact. Hence it is now accepted that the low of conservation of charge applies, and no exceptions have been discovered to this algebraic sum of the states simply the fact that the algebraic sum of the electric charge in any closed system remains constant. A spectacular example of this conservation low is the case when a negative electron and a positive electron are caused to collide. In some of these electron are caused to collide. In some of these interactions the two particles are transmuted into energy by the annihilation process described later. Their mass is converted into the energy of two very penetrating rays, called gamma rays.
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